Homonids are humans and human like ancestors. Bipedalism is the main feature that seperates hominids from other primates. Bipedalism means " walking upright primarilly on two feet". This Makes us different because unlike other primates we have the ability walk on two feet. 


Early hominids are called Australopithecines. Australopithecines and hominids lived at the same time. Australopithecines were some what similar to apes but also very different. Their brains were a little bit larger than the brains of apes and some of them used stone tools. They had slender bodies, human like jaws and teeth, but had small skulls. Australopithecines climbed trees but also walked on 2 legs. Many Australopithecines lived in forest and survived off plants. Fossils of Australopithecines have been found in many places in Africa.

Fossil of Australopithecine

Homo Habilis

Homo habilis was an early hominid that most likely appeared on earth about 2.4 million years ago. Homo habilis is thought to have used stone flakes. These stone flakes were more advanced than any tools previously used. Homo habilis had a bigger and more complex brain than Australopithecines.Their head was less than half of the size of modern humans. Homo habilis has been thought to be the ancestor Homo eragaster which later on evolved into the Homo erectus. 

 Homo Erectus

1.8 million years ago a species called Homo erectus appeared on earth. Fossil remains 1.0-1.8 million years old have been found in Africa. Their foreheads were less sloping and their teeth were smaller than earlier hominids. Homo erectus had a brain size that grew bigger over time which later resembled those of modern humans. Homo erectus used more advanced tools than Homo habilis. Their surviving tools were all made of stone. The main creations included handaxes which were made by chipping stone on both sides to form a two sided stone tool with two cutting edges.

Prehistoric Handaxe


30,000 years ago similar hominids lived in the same area. They both had the largest brains among all hominids. They made clothing, advanced tools and art. This hominid is the Neanderthal. Neanderthals lived in Europe and Asia. They lived about 230,000 years ago. They hunted large animals, made fires and wore clothing. They also buried their dead by doing rituals. About 30,000 years ago Neanderthals disappeared and no one knows what caused it.

Homo Sapiens

Modern humans are called Homo Sapiens. The earliest Homo Sapiens lived in Africa around 100,000 to 160,000 years ago and migrated out of Africa about 40,000 to 100,000 years ago. Compared to Neanderthals, Homo Sapiens have smaller, flatter faces and there skulls are more rounded. Early Homo Sapiens made sculptures, carvings, paintings, and clothing. Out of all known hominids Homo Sapiens are the only ones that still exist.